ABSTRACT: Objective of presented study was to compare intravenous iron sucrose and ferric carboxymaltose therapy in iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy and postpartum period. Methods: A clinical observational study was undertaken at tertiary care teaching hospital over a period of 4 months in 30 pregnant women and 30 post partum women. The baseline hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels were recorded prior to treatment. After completion of the treatment the women were followed up for changes in hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels on day 8 and day 15. The mean rise of hemoglobin value was 5.2 for ferric carboxymaltose and 4.1 g/L for iron sucrose in pregnant women. For postpartum women mean rise of hemoglobin was 4.9 on the 15th day of treatment. Side effects were reported in 40% among patients treated with iron sucrose as compared to 16.67% in case of ferric carboxymaltose. Ferric carboxymaltose administration in pregnant women is safe and well tolerated by pregnant as well as post partum women. Ferric carboxymaltose is associated with fewer side effects as compared to iron sucrose in present study. It also offers the advantage of a much higher iron dosage at a time reducing the need for repeated applications and increasing patients' comfort.KEYWORDS: Anemia; ferric carboxymaltose; hemoglobin; intravenous iron therapy; iron deficiency; iron sucrose; pregnancy
ABSTRACT: Pelletization is an agglomeration process that converts fine powders or granules of bulk drugs and excipients into small, free flowing, spherical or semi-spherical units, referred to as pellets. This review outlines manufacturing of spherical pellets. The manufacturing techniques include Drug layering, Extrusion-Spheronization, Cryopelletization, Compression, Balling, Hot-Melt Extrusion Technology, Freeze pelletization, Spray- drying & Spray-congealing. Factors affecting pelletization technique and advantages, disadvantages of pellets are discussed. KEY WORDS: Pelletization, Pellets, Extrusion-spheronization.
ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylorus (H. pylori) is one of the most common pathogenic bacterial infections and is found in the stomachs of approximately half of the world's popula- tion. It is the primary known cause of gastritis, gastro- duodenal ulcer disease and gastric cancer. However, combined drug therapy as the general treatment in the clinic, the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, adverse reactions and poor patient compliance are major ob- stacles to the eradication of H. pylori . Oral site-specific drug delivery systems that could increase the longevity of the treatment agent at the target site might improve the therapeutic effect and avoid side effects. Gastro- retentive drug delivery systems potentially prolong the gastric retention time and controlled/sustained release of a drug, thereby increasing the concentration of the drug at the application site, potentially improving its bioavailability and reducing the necessary dosage. KEY WORDS: Helicobacter pylorus, Floating Drug Delivery, Gastro-Retentive
ABSTRACT: Rifampicin is a first line medication used as an anti-tubercular agent. Rifampicin acts by binding and inhibiting DNA dependent RNA polymerase. It is active against gram positive and negative both types of bacteria . The clinical and pharmaceutical analysis of this drug requires effective analytical procedures for quality control and pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies as well as stability study. An extensive survey of the literature published in various analytical and pharmaceutical chemistry related journals has been conducted and the instrumental analytical methods which were developed and used for determination of Rifampicin as single or combination with other drugs in bulk drugs, formulations and biological fluids have been reviewed. This review covers the time period from 1997 to 2014 during which 33 analytical methods including spectrophotometric methods like UV and derivative; visible which is based on formation of metal complexation, spectrofluorometric methods and chromatographic method including HPLC, HPTLC, and miscellaneous method like HPLC-MS were reported. The application of these methods for the determination of Rifampicin in pharmaceutical dosage form and biological samples has also been discussed. KEY WORDS: Rifampicin, UV spectroscopy, HPLC, HPLC-MS, HPTLC Cobalt complexes
ABSTRACT: Mouth dissolving film is the most advanced oral solid dosage form due to its flexibility and comfort in use. Mouth dissolving films are oral solid dosage form that disintegrate and dissolve within a minute when placed in mouth without taking water or chewing. This dosage form allows the medication to bypass the first pass metabolism so bioavailability of medication may be improved .Mouth dissolving film has potential to improve onset of action lower the dosing and eliminate the fear of chocking. Formulation of mouth dissolving films involves both the visual and performance characteristics as plasticized hydrocolloids, API taste masking agents are being laminated by solvent casting and semisolid casting method. Solvent casting method being the most preferred method over other methods because it offers great uniformity of thickness and films prepared having fine glossy look and better physical properties. Mouth dissolving films are evaluated for its various parameters like thickness, physical property like folding endurance, disintegration and dissolution time. This review gives an idea about formulation techniques, evaluation parameters, overview on packaging and some available marketed products of mouth dissolving films. KEY WORDS: Mouth dissolving film, solvent casting, fast disintegration
ABSTRACT:Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known endocrine-disrupting chemical found in the environment. Oral exposure from food is generally considered the major source of BPA exposure for all age groups for non-occupationally exposed individuals. Apart from its oestrogenic property there are uncertainties about its effects on liver functions at very low doses over short time exposure periods. This study was carried out to determine the acute and sub-chronic exposure effects of BPA on the liver functions and plasma proteins of albino rats following oral administration. To five experimental groups each containing five (5) female rats was administered 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 ?g BPA/kgbw/day. To the sixth control group was given water. A replicate group of experimental rats were similarly treated for seven (7) days to ascertain possible sub- chronic effects. Animals were sacrificed at the end of the respective studies and sample specimens analyzed by routine diagnostic procedures for plasma protein profile and liver functions using Chemwell Chemical Analyzer. The result reveals significant decreases in serum total protein and albumin and elevated values of AST and ALT (suggesting liver damage) as well as alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin (suggestive of jaundice).It is clear from the results that low doses of BPA exert adverse effects on the liver functions in the Wistar rats even for a short exposure period. Histological evaluations of the livers did not reveal any gross lesion and microscopic analysis show normal hepatic parenchymal-vascular relationship with no fatty changes, apoptotic bodies nor hepatic necrosis.KEY WORDS: acute, sub chronic, toxicity,graded doses, bisphenol A, liver and functions
ABSTRACT Sublingual route is a useful when rapidonset of action is desired with better patient compliance. The portion of drug absorbed through the sublingual blood vessels bypasses the hepatic first pass metabolism processes giving acceptable bioavailability. Fast dissolving drug delivery is rapidly gaining acceptance as an important new drug delivery technology, which aim to enhance safety and efficacy of a drug molecule to achieve better patient compliance. Many patients find it difficult to swallow tablets and hard gelatin capsules particularly pediatric and geriatric patients and do not take their medicines as prescribed. Difficulty in swallowing or dysphasia is seen to afflict nearly 35% of the general population. In some cases such as motion sickness, sudden episode of allergic attack or coughing and an unavailability of water, the swallowing of tablet or capsules may become difficult in such situation fast dissolving drug delivery system is useful.KEY WORDS: Sublingual film, rapid dissolving, water soluble polymers, patient compliance.
ABSTRACT: Pharmaceutical industries have received much interest in pharmaceutical research in the area of oral drug delivery. The purpose of writing this review on floating drug delivery systems (FDDS) was to compile the recent literature with special focus on the principal mechanism of floatation to achieve gastric retention. The recent developments of FDDS including the physiological and formulation variables affecting gastric retention, approaches to design single-unit and multiple-unit floating systems, and their classification and formulation aspects are covered in detail. These systems help in continuously releasing the drug before it reaches the absorption window, thus ensuring optimal bioavailability. This manner may increase patient compliance and provides continuously controlled release administration of sparingly soluble drugs at the particular sites of absorption. In recent years scientific and technological advancements have been made in the research and development of rate-controlled oral drug delivery systems by overcoming physiological adversities, such as short gastric residence times (GRT) and unpredictable gastric emptying times (GET). During the last five decades, little oral delivery has been produced to act as a drug reservoir from which the active ingredients are specified period of time released and at controlled the release rate. Several approaches are currently utilized in the prolongation of the GRT, including floating drug delivery systems (FDDS), also known as hydrodynamically balanced systems (HBS), swelling and expanding systems, polymeric bioadhesive systems, modified-shape systems, high-density systems, and other delayed gastric emptying devices. Method for preparing FDDS is simple and straight forward, and as a result economically attractive. This review also summarizes the in vitro techniques, in vivo studies to evaluate the performance, advantages, marketed products and application of floating systems. These systems are useful to several problems encountered during the development of a pharmaceutical dosage form.KEY WORDS: Floating Drug Delivery System (FDDS), Gastro Retentive Dosage Forms, Floating Dosage Form, Gastric Residence Time
ABSTRACT: Artificial neural network (ANN) operation is based upon the simulation of biological neural process abilities in the human brain. In past statistic formulation optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) is one of the techniques that have been employed to develop and formulate controlled release dosage forms but limitations to the RSM technique another technique called artificial neural networks (ANN) has recently gained wide popularity in the development of controlled release dosage forms. In this review articles most powerfully technique ANN has been optimized the formulation in controlled release drug delivery systems. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are biologically inspired computer programs designed to simulate the way in which the human brain processes information. ANNs gather their knowledge by detecting the patterns and relationships in data and learn (or are trained) through experience, not from programming. In this review, the basic ANN structure, the development of the ANN model and an explanation of how to use ANN to design and develop controlled release drug delivery systems are discussed. The behaviour of a neural network is determined by the transfer functions of its neurons, by the learning rule, and by the architecture itself. The weights are the adjustable parameters and, in that sense, a neural network is a parameterized system. In addition, the applications of ANN in the design and development of controlled release dosage forms are also summarized in this review. The potential applications of ANN methodology in the pharmaceutical sciences range from interpretation of analytical data, drug and controlled release dosage form design through bio-pharmacy to clinical pharmacy. KEY WORDS: Artificial neural network, Controlled-release formulations, Drug delivery systems, Computer, Network architecture
ABSTRACT: The advantage of administering a single dose of a drug that is released over an extended period of time instead of numerous doses is now a day's area of interest for formulation scientists in Pharmaceutical industry. With many drugs the basic Goal of therapy is to achieve a steady- state blood or tissue level that is therapeutically effective and nontoxic for an extended period of time. Sustain release system are considered a wiser approach for the drugs with short half-lives and which require repeated dosing, they are easy to formulate and are irrespective of absorption process from gastrointestinal tract after oral administration. The basic rationale of sustained release drug delivery system optimizes the biopharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics properties of a drug in such a way that its utility is maximized, side-effects are reduced and cure of the disease is achieved. There are several advantages of sustained release (matrix) drug delivery over conventional dosage forms like improved patient compliance due to less frequent drug administration, reduction of fluctuation in steady-state drug levels, maximum utilization of the drug, increased safety margin of potent drug, Developing oral sustained release matrix tablet with constant release rate has always been a challenge to the pharmaceutical technologist. Most of drugs, if not formulated properly, may readily release the drug at a faster rate, and are likely to produce toxic concentration of the drug on oral administration. KEY WORDS: ODDS, Sustain release, Matrix system
ABSTRACT: Oral route is presently the gold standard in the pharmaceutical industry where it is regarded as the safest, most economical and most convenient method of drug delivery resulting in highest patient compliance. Recent advances in novel drug delivery (NDDS) aims to enhance safety and efficacy of drug molecule by formulating a convenient dosage form for ease of administration and to achieve better patient compliance. One such approach is orodispersible tablets (ODTs). ODTs are a solid unit dosage form, which disintegrates or dissolves rapidly in the mouth without the general requirement for swallowing, the chewing and water. Yet, dysphasia is the most common disadvantage of conventional tablets. To overcome such problems, certain innovative drug delivery systems, like 'Orodispersible Tablets' (ODT) have been developed. The aim of this article is to review the ideal properties, significance, characteristics, choice of drug candidates, challenges in formulation, various technologies for preparation of ODTs, Patented technologies on ODTs, and Suitable drug candidates for ODTs, Evaluation tests of ODTs and Marketed product of ODTs. KEY WORDS: Orodispersible tablets, patented technologies, OTS, Novel drug delivery
ABSTRACT: Pharmaceutical care programs developed and implemented by the pharmacists are useful in improving quality of care of both ambulatory as well as hospitalized patients with diabetes and also with other chronic diseases such as, hypertension, asthma, dyslipidemia, heart failure and tuberculosis. In recent years, pharmacists in many practice settings have begun providing patient-centered services with the goal of improving drug therapy outcomes through practices such as pharmaceutical care.30 patients of both the genders who were diagnosed with Diabetes Mellitus (either type 1 or type 2) and taking anti- diabetic agents were recruited for the study. Baseline HbA1c was performed. Patient counseling was provided regarding their disease, drugs and life-style modifications (including exercise, self-care activities, etc). Follow-up was taken every 4-5 weeks Post- counseling HbA1c was performed after 12 weeks to assess the impact of patient counseling on glycemic control. Mean Baseline HbA1c value of 30 patients was observed to be 8.37% having the standard deviation of 1.76. The lowest HbA1c of patient that was observed was 5.8% and the highest one was > 14%. Post-counseling HbA1c was performed after the end of 12 weeks of each patient, starting from date of enrollment. The mean HbA1c found at the endpoint was 7.96% ± 1.58%. At the endpoint the lowest test result was noted to be 5.60% and highest was 13.30%. The paired T-test result showed that there was significant difference existed in the pre-counseling HbA1c and post-counseling HbA1c after 12 weeks. Thus patient counseling showed significant reduction in HbA1c. Our study concluded that clinical pharmacist provided patient counseling in community settings has a positive impact on glycemic indices. KEY WORDS: Glycemic control, HbA1c, Clinical Pharmacist, Patient Counseling, Pharmaceutical Care, Diabetic Patients